I ran into this one on a 365 hosted, AD FS authenticated system with users running Lync 2013. Several users just suddenly started getting this error at random but it would only affect that profile on each machine. If the same user logged in from a local profile or another domain profile then Lync would log in fine. And if you torched the whole cached profile and forced a new profile load, Lync would work fine as well.
After having tried multiple Microsoft provided resolutions of deleting Lync profiles, temporary folders, cryptography keys, accountprofile.dat, delete sign-in info, etc., their support team had us kill the Lync process completely and then delete the whole
and then start up Lync. And then it started working properly and we replicated the fix on the remaining affected profiles.